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Semantic AudiovisuaL Entertainment
Reusable Objects

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Semantic Information Storage and Processing Terms

Deductive Database
A deductive database system is a database system which can make deductions (ie: infer additional rules or facts) based on rules and facts stored in the (deductive) database.
Notation 3 (N3)
Notation 3, or N3 as it is more commonly known, is a shorthand non-XML serialization of Resource Description Framework (RDF) models, designed with human-readability in mind: N3 is much more compact and readable than XML RDF notation. The format is being developed by Tim Berners-Lee and others from the Semantic Web community.
Ontology
Definition : An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. The term is borrowed from philosophy, where an ontology is a systematic account of Existence. For knowledge-based systems, what “exists” is exactly that which can be represented. When the knowledge of a domain is represented in a declarative formalism, the set of objects that can be represented is called the universe of discourse. This set of objects, and the describable relationships among them, are reflected in the representational vocabulary with which a knowledge-based program represents knowledge. Thus, we can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. In such an ontology, definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g., classes, relations, functions, or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names are meant to denote, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms.
Definition, Wikipedia :
In Information Science, an ontology is the product of an attempt to formulate an exhaustive and rigorous conceptual schema about a domain. This domain does not have to be the complete knowledge of that topic, but purely a domain of interest decided upon by the creator of the ontology.
An ontology is typically a hierarchical data structure containing all the relevant entities and their relationships and rules within that domain (e.g., a domain ontology). However, computational ontology does not have to be hierarchical at all. The computer science usage of the term ontology is derived from the much older usage of the term ontology in philosophy.
Semantic information
Whatever kind of information that provides enhanced knowledge about a given media item. For a piece of music ie, the melody, the title, the lyrics, the tonality, the voice register, the structure, the social use...
Semantic gap
Refers to the distance between the type of data which can be automatically extracted from media items and the level of human understanding of concepts and features related to the same. The key challenge in content analysis is to come as close to semantically relevant information as the human understanding and knowledge, but with as little human manual annotation as possible.
Thesaurus
Definition: A formal definition of a thesaurus designed for indexing is:
  • a list of every important term (single-word or multi-word) in a given domain of knowledge; and
  • a set of related terms for each term in the list.
Terms are the basic semantic units for conveying concepts. They are usually single-word nouns, since nouns are the most concrete part of speech. Verbs can be converted to nouns -- cleans to cleaning, reads to reading, and so on. Adjectives and adverbs, however, seldom convey any meaning useful for indexing. When a term is ambiguous, a “scope note” can be added to ensure consistency, and give direction on how to interpret the term. Naturally, not every term needs a scope note, but their presence is of considerable help in using a thesaurus correctly and reaching a correct understanding of the given field of knowledge.
Term relationships are links between terms that often describe synonyms, near-synonyms, or hierarchical relations. Synonyms and near-synonyms are indicated by a Related Term (RT). The way the term "Cybernetics" is related to the term "Computers" is an example of such a relationship. Hierarchical relationships are used to indicate terms which are narrower and broader in scope. A Broader Term (BT) is a more general term, e.g. “Apparatus” is a generalization of “Computers”. Reciprocally, a Narrower Term (NT) is a more specific term, e.g. “Digital Computer” is a specialization of “Computer”. BT and NT are reciprocals; a broader term necessarily implies at least one other term which is narrower. Thesaurus designers are generally careful to ensure that BT and NT indicate class relationships, as distinguished from part-whole relationships. Some thesauri also include Use (USE) and Used For (UF) indicators when an authorized term is to be used for another, unauthorized, term; for example the entry for the authorized term "Frequency" could have the indicator "UF Pitch". Reciprocally, the entry for the unauthorized term "Pitch" would have the indicator "USE Frequency".
Taxonomy
Taxonomy (from Greek verb tassein = "to classify" and nomos = law, science, cf "economy") may refer to:
  • the science of classifying living things (see alpha taxonomy)
  • a classification
Initially taxonomy was only the science of classifying living organisms, but later the word was applied in a wider sense, and may also refer to either a classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. Almost anything, animate objects, inanimate objects, places, and events, may be classified according to some taxonomic scheme.
Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects. At the top of this structure is a single classification, the root node, that applies to all objects. Nodes below this root are more specific classifications that apply to subsets of the total set of classified objects. So for instance in common schemes of scientific classification of organisms, the root is the Organism (as this applies to all living things, it is implied rather than stated explicitly). Below this are the Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species, with various other ranks sometimes inserted.


Some terms & definitions have been taken from the Wikipedia

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